By Shahir A. Daya, IBM Distinguished Engineer and CTO Financial Services and Mehryar Maalem, Software Engineer at IBM

Mehryar and I work on large digital transformation programs. These are usually well-established organizations, predating the internet and digital commerce with architecture that can be described as the sum of siloed systems, mimicking their organization’s communication structure [1] that are weaved together through disjointed point-to-point integration patterns. These environments pose a challenge for modernization efforts.

Over the past few years, our team has been on the ground engaging with various clients to address this challenge. In this blog post, we would like…


By Muneeb S. Ahmad, Microservices Architect, Global Business Services and Shahir A. Daya, IBM Distinguished Engineer and CTO Financial Services

Muneeb and I have worked together on some large banking client transformation programs that have targeted a Cloud Native/Microservices architecture. We were conforming to industry-standard data models such as the Banking Industry Architecture Network (BIAN) model in our client work. Ensuring that our APIs, developed by many full-stack squads, were consistently applying the industry-standard model was challenging. On a recent client engagement, we have devised an approach to ensure consistency in applying the BIAN object model (BOM). That is the…


By Tanmay Ambre, Executive IT Architect, Financial Services Sector and Shahir A. Daya, IBM Distinguished Engineer and CTO Financial Services

Tanmay and I both work in the field as part of IBM Services. We are both hands-on and spend most of our time with our clients working on delivering their projects. We have seen the market adoption of Event-Driven and Streaming Architectures increase to the point where it is fast becoming the standard architecture for use cases that are event-driven or require real-time stream processing.

Based on recent client projects that Tanmay and I have delivered, we have found that…


In his great book “Building Microservices”, Sam Newman discusses Governance Through Code. He shares two techniques that he has seen work well in making it easy for developers to follow development guidelines. These are:

  • Exemplars — example code implementations of the standards, policies, and leading practices that you want developers to implement. Developers like working code. Sam Newman also suggests that these examples should ideally be real-world services that might have already been developed as opposed to isolated fragments of code that have been solely written for the purpose of serving as an exemplar.
  • Tailored Service Template — a template…


In my role at IBM as a hands-on architect, I have been working on client projects involving Cloud since around 2013. Cloud-Native is no longer a buzzword, or at least it shouldn’t be. In speaking with my clients and fellow practitioners, I find that everyone seems to have a little bit of their own definition of Cloud Native.

“Stop what you’re doing and text ten of your colleagues. Ask them to define the term “Cloud Native”. Good chance you’ll get eight different answers.”

- Defining Cloud Native, Microsoft Docs

There is no shortage of material on this topic. …


An effective software architect has many traits. In a 2006 article titled “Characteristics of a software architect”, Peter Eeles covers the following characteristics:

  • The architect is a technical leader
  • The architect understands the software development process
  • The architect has knowledge of the business domain
  • The architect has technology knowledge
  • The architect has design skills
  • The architect has programming skills
  • The architect is a good communicator
  • The architect makes decisions
  • The architect is aware of organizational politics
  • The architect is a negotiator

Mark Richards & Neal Ford have a section on the “Expectations of an Architect” in their recent book on…


By Shahir A. Daya

“How do we start?” is a question I get asked a lot when it comes to Digital Transformation. I spend most of my time on client engagements working to solve hard problems at some of the best companies. Having recently had the opportunity to work on a couple of significant transformation projects, I wanted to share the approach that has evolved out of them and the lessons we have learned.

There are many workstreams that comprise a typical digital transformation program. My recent client engagements have been digital transformation programs involving moving from traditional monolithic architectures…


By Shahir A. Daya and Dhruv Rajput

Microservices change everything: how work gets done, how decisions are made, who makes those decisions, when code is deployed, how code is supported — the list goes on and on.

As organizations transform and the momentum for microservices grows, governance becomes top of mind for leaders within IT. The governance structures in place today must evolve as microservices and new technologies gain traction.

IBM has helped organizations implement microservices technical governance as part of complex transformation engagements and have consolidated our learnings into a model illustrated in Figure 1 below. We are not…

Shahir A. Daya

Shahir Daya is an IBM Distinguished Engineer and CTO in the Financial Services Sector in IBM Global Business Service.

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